13. Effects of Enzyme Formulation and Loadings on Conversion of Biomass Pretreated by Leading Technologies

  1. Charles E. Wyman3,4
  1. Rajesh Gupta1 and
  2. Y. Y. Lee2

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch13

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

How to Cite

Gupta, R. and Lee, Y. Y. (2013) Effects of Enzyme Formulation and Loadings on Conversion of Biomass Pretreated by Leading Technologies, in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (ed C. E. Wyman), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch13

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 4

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Chevron ETC, Houston, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 10 MAY 2013

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources

Book Series Editors:

  1. Christian V. Stevens

Series Editor Information

  1. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470972021

Online ISBN: 9780470975831

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Keywords:

  • biomass;
  • cellulase;
  • enzyme;
  • hemicellulase;
  • hydrolysis;
  • pretreatment;
  • xylanase

Summary

Commercial cellulase formulations are a mixture of diverse enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, and other structural components present within the plant cell wall simultaneously. The enzymes in cellulase formulations work synergistically as a part of the enzyme system, providing better access of cellulolytic enzymes to the cellulose molecule. Due to the diverse composition and bonding among the major structural components, the extent of hydrolysis varies widely with different types of biomass for a given level of cellulase loading. In addition, different pretreatment technologies bring about diverse changes in chemical as well as physical characteristics of biomass, which further affects enzyme–biomass interactions such as adsorption, unproductive binding to lignin, loss of activity, and relative access to cellulose. Effective enzyme loadings for biomass hydrolysis therefore greatly depend on biomass composition and structure. Recent studies have shown that supplementation of cellulase with commercial xylanase, pectinase, and other auxiliary enzymes substantially reduces cellulase as well as overall protein loadings needed for efficient biomass hydrolysis. Optimization of cellulolytic (Endoglucanase, Cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase) enzymes alone in cellulase also improves gross hydrolysis efficiency, which results in higher yields from cellulose hydrolysis.