18. Plant Biomass Characterization: Application of Solution- and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

  1. Charles E. Wyman4,5
  1. Yunqiao Pu1,5,
  2. Bassem Hallac2,5 and
  3. Arthur J. Ragauskas3,5

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch18

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

How to Cite

Pu, Y., Hallac, B. and Ragauskas, A. J. (2013) Plant Biomass Characterization: Application of Solution- and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (ed C. E. Wyman), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch18

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 5

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA

  2. 2

    School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA

  3. 3

    Institute of Paper Science and Technology, and School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA

  4. 5

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 10 MAY 2013

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources

Book Series Editors:

  1. Christian V. Stevens

Series Editor Information

  1. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470972021

Online ISBN: 9780470975831

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Keywords:

  • biomass characterization;
  • cellulose;
  • lignin;
  • NMR

Summary

The conversion of plant biomass to biofuels is considered a promising alternative to reliance on diminishing supplies of fossil fuels, providing a sustainable option for fuels production in an environmentally compatible manner. However, the effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels usually suffers from intrinsic recalcitrance of biomass due to the complicated structure of plant cell walls in which the major structural constituents are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Considerable efforts have been devoted to developing pretreatment technologies that alter the structure of biomass to reduce recalcitrance. This chapter focuses on application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization with an emphasis on lignin and cellulose constituents of biomass. One- and two-dimensional-solution NMR is discussed for lignin structure characterization, while solid-state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR is focused on analysis of the crystallinity and ultrastructure of cellulose. The solution and solid-state NMR techniques presented in this chapter offer effective tools for analysis of lignin and cellulose in biological and chemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals.