3. Plant Cell Walls: Basics of Structure, Chemistry, Accessibility and the Influence on Conversion

  1. Charles E. Wyman3,4
  1. Brian H. Davison1,
  2. Jerry Parks1,
  3. Mark F. Davis2 and
  4. Bryon S. Donohoe2

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch3

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

How to Cite

Davison, B. H., Parks, J., Davis, M. F. and Donohoe, B. S. (2013) Plant Cell Walls: Basics of Structure, Chemistry, Accessibility and the Influence on Conversion, in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (ed C. E. Wyman), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 4

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

  2. 2

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden and BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 10 MAY 2013

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources

Book Series Editors:

  1. Christian V. Stevens

Series Editor Information

  1. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470972021

Online ISBN: 9780470975831

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Keywords:

  • biomass conversion;
  • biomass diversity;
  • biomass recalcitrance;
  • cell types;
  • lignocellulosic biomass;
  • multilamellar architecture;
  • nanoporosity;
  • plant cell wall chemistry;
  • plant cell wall structure;
  • plant tissue

Summary

This chapter briefly surveys the basics of plant cell-wall structure and composition as well as the variability of lignocellulose in plants that relate to pretreatment. It then returns to the chemical components of lignocellulose, first lignin and then cellulose. The discussion of hemicellulose focuses on its branching, decorations, and cross-linkages. The chapter also discusses the influences of the microscopic structure of biomass: the tissue, cellular, and macromolecular-scale architecture that contributes to recalcitrance. Finally, it surveys how molecular modeling and computer simulation is being used to explore biomass structure and chemistry, and to inform the nature of recalcitrance in lignocellulosic biomass.