6. Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment at Low pH

  1. Charles E. Wyman2,3
  1. Heather L. Trajano2,3,† and
  2. Charles E. Wyman2,3

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch6

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

How to Cite

Trajano, H. L. and Wyman, C. E. (2013) Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment at Low pH, in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (ed C. E. Wyman), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch6

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 3

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Author Information

  1. 2

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 3

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

  1. Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 10 MAY 2013

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources

Book Series Editors:

  1. Christian V. Stevens

Series Editor Information

  1. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470972021

Online ISBN: 9780470975831

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Keywords:

  • acid hydrolysis;
  • cellulose crystallinity;
  • cellulose degree of polymerization;
  • dilute acid;
  • furfural;
  • glucose;
  • kinetic models;
  • levulinic acid;
  • lignin removal;
  • neutralization;
  • pretreatment;
  • pseudo-lignin;
  • sulfur dioxide;
  • sulfuric acid;
  • solid catalysis;
  • xylose;
  • xylo-oligomer

Summary

Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass typically requires an initial treatment to produce reactive intermediates. For ethanol production via biological conversion of sugars, this step is referred to as pretreatment and produces a more digestible form of biomass for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Additionally, new developments in catalytic production of hydrocarbons for use as drop-in fuels or chemicals has generated interest in the conversion of biomass to reactive intermediates in addition to sugars such as furfural and levulinic acid that result from sugar dehydration. All of these intermediates can be generated through acid hydrolysis of biomass. In this chapter, changes in cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, ash, and ultrastructure following acid hydrolysis of biomass are described. Furthermore, the evolution of acid treatment objectives is outlined along with common acidifying agents, reaction temperatures and times, and reactor configurations. Kinetic models of these reactions are also reviewed.