9. Primer on Ammonia Fiber Expansion Pretreatment

  1. Charles E. Wyman4,5
  1. S. P. S. Chundawat1,2,
  2. B. Bals1,2,
  3. T. Campbell3,
  4. L. Sousa1,
  5. D. Gao1,2,
  6. M. Jin1,2,
  7. P. Eranki1,2,
  8. R. Garlock1,2,
  9. F. Teymouri3,
  10. Venkatesh Balan1,2 and
  11. Bruce E. Dale1,2

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch9

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

How to Cite

Chundawat, S. P. S., Bals, B., Campbell, T., Sousa, L., Gao, D., Jin, M., Eranki, P., Garlock, R., Teymouri, F., Balan, V. and Dale, B. E. (2013) Primer on Ammonia Fiber Expansion Pretreatment, in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals (ed C. E. Wyman), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470975831.ch9

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA

  2. 5

    BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

  2. 2

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

  3. 3

    Michigan Biotechnology Institute, Lansing, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 10 MAY 2013

Book Series:

  1. Wiley Series in Renewable Resources

Book Series Editors:

  1. Christian V. Stevens

Series Editor Information

  1. Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470972021

Online ISBN: 9780470975831

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Keywords:

  • AFEX;
  • ammonia fiber expansion;
  • cellulosic biofuels;
  • enzymatic hydrolysis;
  • enzyme adsorption;
  • ethanol fermentation;
  • transgenic plants;
  • regional biomass processing depots;
  • techno-economics;
  • life-cycle analysis

Summary

We provide an extensive review of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment from a techno-economical and environmental sustainability perspective. A brief historical perspective on concentrated ammonia-based pretreatments is provided followed by a detailed overview of the AFEX process and its physicochemical impact on lignocellulosic plant cell walls. AFEX is unique in terms of leaving biomass composition virtually intact after pretreatment, unlike other aqueous pretreatments. The impact of AFEX pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility and microbial fermentability for a diverse selection of feedstocks is reviewed. The utility of using transgenic plants as feedstocks for an AFEX process are highlighted. Recent developments of the AFEX process (e.g., extractive vs. non-extractive AFEX) are discussed along with a focus on commercialization efforts to develop cheap, hybrid AFEX reactors with in-built, low-cost ammonia recovery systems. Integration of the AFEX process into a regional biomass processing depot is discussed along with its ramifications on plant protein extraction, animal feed production, on-site enzyme production, and biomass fractionation. Finally, we discuss various techno-economic and life-cycle analysis modeling efforts that have centered on systems employing the AFEX process.