Chapter 2. A Critical Appraisal of the Cardiovascular History and Physical Examination

  1. Salim Yusuf1,
  2. John A Cairns2,
  3. A John Camm3,
  4. Ernest L Fallen4 and
  5. Bernard J Gersh5
  1. Akbar Panju,
  2. Brenda Hemmelgarn,
  3. Jim Nishikawa,
  4. Deborah Cook and
  5. Allan Kitching

Published Online: 4 OCT 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470986882.ch2

Evidence-based Cardiology, Second Edition

Evidence-based Cardiology, Second Edition

How to Cite

Panju, A., Hemmelgarn, B., Nishikawa, J., Cook, D. and Kitching, A. (2002) A Critical Appraisal of the Cardiovascular History and Physical Examination, in Evidence-based Cardiology, Second Edition (eds S. Yusuf, J. A. Cairns, A. J. Camm, E. L. Fallen and B. J. Gersh), BMJ Books, London, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470986882.ch2

Editor Information

  1. 1

    Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario Research Chair, Senior Scientist of the Canadian Institute of Health Research, Director of Cardiology and Professor of Medicine, McMaster, University, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada

  2. 2

    Dean, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

  3. 3

    Professor of Clinical Cardiology and Chief, Department of Cardiological Sciences, St George's Hospital Medical School, London, UK

  4. 4

    Professor Emeritus, McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada

  5. 5

    Consultant in Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic; Professor of Medicine, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 OCT 2007
  2. Published Print: 20 NOV 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780727916990

Online ISBN: 9780470986882



  • critical appraisal;
  • physical examination;
  • clinical skills;
  • chest pain;
  • dyspnea


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Strategies used to locate literature on clinical examination

  • How to critically appraise the literature on clinical examination studies

  • Clinical features in the cardiovascular history

  • Clinical features in the cardiovascular physical examination

  • Summary