Chapter 14. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Variants

  1. Howard Thomas BSc PhD FRCP FRCpath FMedSci Professor1,
  2. Stanley Lemon Professor2 and
  3. Arie Zuckerman MD, DSc, FRCP, FRCPath, FMedSci, Dip. Bact Professor3
  1. William F Carman,
  2. Mohammad Jazayeri,
  3. Ashraf Basuni,
  4. Howard C Thomas and
  5. Peter Karayiannis

Published Online: 26 OCT 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470987131.ch14

Viral Hepatitis, Third Edition

Viral Hepatitis, Third Edition

How to Cite

Carman, W. F., Jazayeri, M., Basuni, A., Thomas, H. C. and Karayiannis, P. (2005) Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Variants, in Viral Hepatitis, Third Edition (eds H. Thomas, S. Lemon and A. Zuckerman), Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470987131.ch14

Editor Information

  1. 1

    Dean (Clinical) Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Queen Mother Wing, St Mary's Hospital Medical School, London UK

  2. 2

    Dean of Medicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology & Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

  3. 3

    The Royal Free Hospital of Medicine, Rowland Hill Street, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 OCT 2007
  2. Published Print: 12 JUL 2005

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405130059

Online ISBN: 9780470987131



  • hepatitis B surface antigen;
  • amino acid level;
  • geographical variability;
  • active immunization;
  • passive immunization


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The surface gene and subtypes

  • Geographical and ethnic variability

  • Variants associated with active immunization

  • Variants associated with passive immunization

  • Variants associated with anti-viral therapy

  • Diagnostic problems

  • Antigenic characterization

  • Immune escape at T-cell level

  • Pre-S/S variants and chronic hepatitis

  • Conclusion