Emx and Nfi Genes Regulate Cortical Development and Axon Guidance in the Telencephalon

  1. Gregory Bock Organizer and
  2. Jamie Goode
  1. Michael Piper1,
  2. Amber-Lee S. Dawson1,
  3. Charlotta Lindwall1,
  4. Guy Barry1,
  5. Céline Plachez1,3 and
  6. Linda J. Richards1,2,†

Published Online: 1 FEB 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470994030.ch16

Cortical Development: Genes and Genetic Abnormalities: Novartis Foundation Symposium 288

Cortical Development: Genes and Genetic Abnormalities: Novartis Foundation Symposium 288

How to Cite

Piper, M., Dawson, A.-L. S., Lindwall, C., Barry, G., Plachez, C. and Richards, L. J. (2008) Emx and Nfi Genes Regulate Cortical Development and Axon Guidance in the Telencephalon, in Cortical Development: Genes and Genetic Abnormalities: Novartis Foundation Symposium 288 (eds G. Bock and J. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470994030.ch16

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute and The School of Biomedical Sciences, Brisbane, 4074, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Queensland, School of Biomedical Sciences and The Queensland Brain Institute, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Otto Hirschfeld Building (81), Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia

  3. 3

    The University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA

  1. This paper was presented at the symposium by Linda Richards, to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 FEB 2008
  2. Published Print: 11 JAN 2008

Book Series:

  1. Novartis Foundation Symposia

Book Series Editors:

  1. Novartis Foundation

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470060926

Online ISBN: 9780470994030

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Keywords:

  • Drosophila empty spiracles gene;
  • cortical neuron migration;
  • intrinsic neuronal mechanisms;
  • dynamic cytoskeletal regulation;
  • glutamatergic projection neurons-origin and migration;
  • medial ganglionic eminences (MGE);
  • projection neurons-Cortical layering;
  • radial glial scaffold malformations;
  • cortical laminar architecture abnormalities;
  • wild-type neurons failure

Summary

The Emx and Nuclear Factor One (Nfi) genes encode transcription factors that regulate numerous embryonic developmental processes. The two mammalian Emx genes, Emx1 and Emx2, are expressed in the embryonic cortex and regulate the specification of the cortex into different sensory and motor areas along the rostrocaudal axis. To date, few developmental processes have been attributed specifically to Emx1, with most analyses demonstrating a redundancy of function between Emx1 and Emx2, with Emx2 being most essential for development. Here we provide evidence that Emx1 and Emx2 regulate different developmental processes during corpus callosum formation and review how both genes function in cellular migration and the formation of cortical axon projections. The Nfi gene family is made up of four members, Nfia, Nfib, Nfic and Nfix. Expression analyses show that Nfia, Nfib and Nfix are expressed in the developing telencephalon. They play roles in patterning, glial development, cortical cell migration and axon guidance. We review the role of these genes in cortical cell migration, glial development and the formation of cortical axon projections, and examine the overlapping mutant phenotypes between the Emx and Nfi gene families.