Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells in Cortical Development

  1. Gregory Bock Organizer and
  2. Jamie Goode
  1. Stephen C. Noctor1,
  2. Veronica Martinez-Cerdeño1 and
  3. Arnold R. Kriegstein2

Published Online: 1 FEB 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470994030.ch5

Cortical Development: Genes and Genetic Abnormalities: Novartis Foundation Symposium 288

Cortical Development: Genes and Genetic Abnormalities: Novartis Foundation Symposium 288

How to Cite

Noctor, S. C., Martinez-Cerdeño, V. and Kriegstein, A. R. (2008) Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells in Cortical Development, in Cortical Development: Genes and Genetic Abnormalities: Novartis Foundation Symposium 288 (eds G. Bock and J. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470994030.ch5

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Neurology, UCSF School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143-0525, USA

  2. 2

    Institute for Regeneration Medicine, UCSF School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSW 1201, Campus Box 0525, San Francisco, CA 94143-0525, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 FEB 2008
  2. Published Print: 11 JAN 2008

Book Series:

  1. Novartis Foundation Symposia

Book Series Editors:

  1. Novartis Foundation

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470060926

Online ISBN: 9780470994030

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Keywords:

  • neural stem and progenitor cells;
  • embryonic and adult brain;
  • Radial glial (RG) cells and intermediate progenitor (IP) cells;
  • ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ);
  • mitotic behaviour and morphology;
  • pial-contacting process;
  • interkinetic nuclear migration;
  • neural stem cells;
  • self-renewing divisions;
  • fluorescent reporter genes expression

Summary

Recent work has begun to identify neural stem and progenitor cells in the embryonic and adult brain, and is unravelling the mechanisms whereby new nerve cells are created and delivered to their correct locations. Radial glial (RG) cells, which are present in the developing mammalian brain, have been proposed to be neural stem cells because they produce multiple cell types. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging demonstrates that RG cells undergo asymmetric self-renewing divisions to produce immature neurons that migrate along their parent radial fibre to reach the developing cerebral cortex. RG cells also produce intermediate progenitor (IP) cells that undergo symmetric division in the subventricular zone of the embryonic cortex to produce pairs of neurons. The symmetric IP divisions increase cell number within the same cortical layer. This two-step process of neurogenesis suggests new mechanisms for the generation of cell diversity and cell number in the developing cortex and supports a model similar to that proposed for the development of the fruit fly CNS. In this model, a temporal sequence of gene expression changes in asymmetrically dividing self-renewed RG cells could lead to the differential inheritance of cell identity genes in cortical cells generated at different cell cycles.