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Multiple Evaluators

  1. Jason J. Z. Liao,
  2. Robert C. Capen

Published Online: 14 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780471462422.eoct303

Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials

Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials

How to Cite

Liao, J. J. Z. and Capen, R. C. 2008. Multiple Evaluators. Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials. 1–9.

Author Information

  1. Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 MAR 2008


In medical and other related sciences, the clinical or experimental measurements obtained from multiple evaluators usually serve as a basis for diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and performance evaluations. Thus, it is important to assess interevaluator agreement. The measurement scale can be continuous, binary, nominal, or ordinal. In this article, we review some commonly used approaches for both continuous and categorical outcomes.


  • multiple evaluators;
  • agreement;
  • agreement interval;
  • kappa;
  • reproducibility