9. Oxidative Modification of Proteins: An Overview

  1. Giancarlo Aldini2,
  2. Kyung-Jin Yeum3,
  3. Etsuo Niki4 and
  4. Robert M. Russell5
  1. Paul J. Thornalley and
  2. Naila Rabbani

Published Online: 4 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780813814438.ch9

Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications

Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications

How to Cite

Thornalley, P. J. and Rabbani, N. (2010) Oxidative Modification of Proteins: An Overview, in Biomarkers for Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Damage: Principles and Practical Applications (eds G. Aldini, K.-J. Yeum, E. Niki and R. M. Russell), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780813814438.ch9

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche “Pietro Pratesi”, Universitàdegli Studi di Milano, Via L. Mangiagalli 25, 20133 Milan, Italy

  2. 3

    Jean Mayer USDA—Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Tufts University, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02111 USA

  3. 4

    Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 Japan

  4. 5

    Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, Maryland 20892 USA

Author Information

  1. Systems Biology, Protein Damage and Systems Biology Research Group, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick, University Hospital, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 10 SEP 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813815350

Online ISBN: 9780813814438



  • oxidative modification of proteins;
  • oxidation of proteins in physiological systems - spontaneous autoxidation of cysteinyl thiols, interaction of proteins with reactive oxidizing intermediates;
  • low levels of oxidative damage to proteins - hormetic response, stronger anti-stress gene response;
  • protein oxidation in physiological systems - by spontaneous cysteinyl thiol autoxidation;
  • thiol group of cysteine residues in proteins - most easily oxidized site within proteins;
  • protein oxidation adduct residues and free adducts - in biomedical research, and methionine sulfoxide;
  • “Protein carbonyls” - measure of protein oxidation;
  • “Advanced oxidation protein products” (AOPPs) - indirect protein oxidation measure;
  • gold standard reference method, for protein oxidation adduct analysis - LC-MS/MS with isotopic dilution analysis;
  • biomarker use as surrogate assessment of clinical endpoints - and several advantages


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Physiological Oxidizing Agents

  • Oxidation of Cysteine Residues

  • Oxidation of Methionine Residues

  • Oxidation of Tyrosine Residues

  • Oxidation of Phenylalanine Residues

  • Oxidation of Tryptophan Residues

  • Other Related Modifications of Oxidized Proteins

  • Protein Carbonyls, Advanced Protein Oxidation Products, and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence as Markers of Protein Oxidation

  • Advances in Quantitation of Protein Damage

  • Proteasomal and Lysosomal Proteolysis of Oxidized Proteins

  • Proteolytic Debris of Oxidized Proteins: Oxidation-Free Adducts

  • Proteomics Studies of Oxidized Proteins

  • Biomarkers

  • References