17. Cocaine and Metabolites in Wastewater as a Tool to Calculate Local and National Cocaine Consumption Prevalence in Belgium

  1. Sara Castiglioni,
  2. Ettore Zuccato and
  3. Roberto Fanelli
  1. Alexander L. N. van Nuijs1,
  2. Lieven Bervoets2,
  3. Philippe G. Jorens3,
  4. Ronny Blust4,
  5. Hugo Neels1 and
  6. Adrian Covaci1,4

Published Online: 18 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781118000816.ch17

Illicit Drugs in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis, and Fate Using Mass Spectrometry

Illicit Drugs in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis, and Fate Using Mass Spectrometry

How to Cite

van Nuijs, A. L. N., Bervoets, L., Jorens, P. G., Blust, R., Neels, H. and Covaci, A. (2011) Cocaine and Metabolites in Wastewater as a Tool to Calculate Local and National Cocaine Consumption Prevalence in Belgium, in Illicit Drugs in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis, and Fate Using Mass Spectrometry (eds S. Castiglioni, E. Zuccato and R. Fanelli), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118000816.ch17

Editor Information

  1. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy

Author Information

  1. 1

    Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

  2. 2

    Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

  3. 3

    University of Antwerp, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium

  4. 4

    Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 JAN 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 MAR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470529546

Online ISBN: 9781118000816

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Keywords:

  • cocaine and metabolites in wastewater - socioepidemiological studies, calculating local and national cocaine consumption prevalence in Belgium;
  • cocaine and metabolites in wastewater and sample collections - sewage epidemiology approach, BE and benzoylecgonine, wastewater treatment plant;
  • sewage epidemiology work in Belgium - objective and realistic data of illicit drug consumption at local and nationwide scale

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Analytical Aspects of the Determination of Cocaine and Metabolites in Wastewater and Sample Collection

  • Back-Calculation of Cocaine Consumption from Concentrations of COC, BE, and EME in Wastewater

  • Local and National Results of Cocaine Consumption in Belgium

  • Conclusions and Future Trends and Research

  • Acknowledgments

  • References