5. Flow-Modulated Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography

  1. Luigi Mondello
  1. John V. Seeley

Published Online: 25 JUL 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781118003466.ch5

Comprehensive Chromatography in Combination with Mass Spectrometry

Comprehensive Chromatography in Combination with Mass Spectrometry

How to Cite

Seeley, J. V. (2011) Flow-Modulated Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, in Comprehensive Chromatography in Combination with Mass Spectrometry (ed L. Mondello), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118003466.ch5

Editor Information

  1. University of Messina, Messina, Italy

Author Information

  1. Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 JUL 2011
  2. Published Print: 26 AUG 2011

Book Series:

  1. Wiley-Interscience Series in Mass Spectrometry

Book Series Editors:

  1. Dominic M. Desiderio3 and
  2. Nico M. M. Nibbering4

Series Editor Information

  1. 3

    Departments of Neurology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA

  2. 4

    Vrije Universiteit Amesterdam, The Netherlands

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470434079

Online ISBN: 9781118003466



  • flow-modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - flow modulation use, with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography;
  • flow modulators, and multiport valve advantage - direct flow control, immune to tailing due to dead volume;
  • thermal modulation, ultimate modulation technique - narrow concentrated pulses, working at flows near 1 mL/min


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Timing Requirements of GC X GC Modulators

  • Criteria for Evaluating Modulators

  • Forms of Modulation

  • Single-Stage Flow Modulation

  • Two-Stage Flow Modulation

  • Summary of Flow Modulators

  • Brief Comparison to Thermal Modulation

  • Concluding Remarks