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Microscopy: High Resolution Electron (HREM)

  1. N. Igata

Published Online: 20 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118097298.weoc146

Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites

Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites

How to Cite

Igata, N. 2012. Microscopy: High Resolution Electron (HREM). Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites. 1–8.

Author Information

  1. University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUL 2012


The properties of composite materials are closely related to the microstructure of the fibers or particles, matrix, and interfaces that can be studied, thanks to the use of a high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). It represents, in fact, one of the most powerful methods that can be used to clarify the microstructure of composite materials.

In this article, a brief description of the structure of HREM is reported first to describe some principles that are to the base of the image formation. Moreover, a discussion on the specimen preparation is reported, and finally, some applications to some composite materials are explained.


  • high resolution electron microscopy;
  • contrast;
  • resolution;
  • composites;
  • interphase