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Self-Healing Materials

  1. Michael W. Keller

Published Online: 20 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118097298.weoc219

Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites

Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites

How to Cite

Keller, M. W. 2012. Self-Healing Materials. Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites. 1–11.

Author Information

  1. The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUL 2012


This article discusses the current developments and advances for the incorporation of a damage repair mechanism in composite materials. There are several approaches for imparting this functionality, but each approach can be described as belonging to one of two broad families, an active-phase mechanism or an active-matrix mechanism. Active-phase mechanisms incorporate another phase into the composite material, besides reinforcement and matrix, to accomplish damage repair. Active-matrix self-healing materials seek to incorporate a fundamental chemical phenomenon, such as reversible bonds, that can perform damage repair. Each of these approaches is described in detail including both the manufacturing or synthesis techniques and the material characterization approaches that have been adopted to assess self-healing capability. A brief summary and outlook is also provided that describes the current challenges and maturity of the field.


  • self-healing composite;
  • microencapsulation;
  • remendable polymer;
  • hollow fiber;
  • damage repair