Standard Article

Bio-Based Chemistry for Polymeric Matrices

  1. Sandro Cobror1,
  2. Salvatore Iannace2

Published Online: 20 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118097298.weoc258

Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites

Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites

How to Cite

Cobror, S. and Iannace, S. 2012. Bio-Based Chemistry for Polymeric Matrices. Wiley Encyclopedia of Composites. 1–6.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Chemtex Italia spa, Tortona, AL, Italy

  2. 2

    National Research Council, Napoli, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUL 2012

Abstract

Since the last decade, the whole world is facing a sharp increase in energy consumption in conjunction with a fast growth in world population and an increasing demand in emerging economies. The vast majority of energy sources are actually derived from fossil. Chemical industry also uses fossil sources, primarily oil and gas, both for the manufacturing of chemical products and base chemicals and also for its internal energy consumption.

Since late 1990s, according to the Kyoto protocol, a decision was taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a global basis. Consequently, many countries have started relevant processes to implement national policies ultimately aimed at reduction of GHG emissions, at improving energy security, and at less reliance on fossil fuels. According to those policies, resources with no or minimal environmental impact have been indicated as alternatives to fossil ones for energy production. Vegetable or animal biomasses can be an option provided that they do not compete with food or with feed because of lack of food availability in developing Countries and potential risk of unacceptable agricultural commodities price increase.

A new kind of chemistry, based on the use of natural renewable resources, such as vegetable biomasses, widely available, inexpensive and with marginal environmental impact, is developing. This so-called “bio-based chemistry” will contribute to address some of the main concerns of the chemical industry. The depletion of nonrenewable and polluting oil resources, the effect of chemicals on human health, and the increase evidence of global warming can be the drivers to boost a new positive trend in the future for the entire chemical industry. In particular, the development of novel polymeric matrices from renewable resources for bio-based composites appears very attractive as demand is expected to grow rapidly and significantly in next decades.

Keywords:

  • bio-based epichlorohydrin;
  • lignin;
  • bio-based polymer;
  • propanediol;
  • polytrimethylene terephthalate