Ten. Weighting Adjustment Techniques

  1. Jelke Bethlehem1 and
  2. Silvia Biffignandi2

Published Online: 4 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781118121757.ch10

Handbook of Web Surveys

Handbook of Web Surveys

How to Cite

Bethlehem, J. and Biffignandi, S. (2011) Weighting Adjustment Techniques, in Handbook of Web Surveys, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118121757.ch10

Author Information

  1. 1

    Statistics Netherlands, Division of Methodology and Quality, The Netherlands

  2. 2

    University of Bergamo, Center for Statistics and Analysis of Sample Surveys, Bergamo, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 OCT 2011
  2. Published Print: 21 OCT 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470603567

Online ISBN: 9781118121757



  • generalized regression estimation;
  • poststratification;
  • raking ratio estimation;
  • weighting adjustment


This chapter describes three types of weighting adjustment techniques: poststratification, generalized regression estimation, and raking ratio estimation. It highlights that an effective weighting adjustment procedure requires proper auxiliary information. The principles of weighting adjustment are closely related to the concept of representativity. Here the concept of representativity with respect to a variable is used. Weighting adjustment techniques impose the condition of representativity with respect to one or more selected auxiliary variables. Poststratification is the most frequently used weighting adjustment technique. Poststratification reduces a bias if the strata are homogeneous. Calibration is a theoretical framework for adjustment weighting. Poststratification, linear weighting and multiplicative weighting are special cases for this framework.

Controlled Vocabulary Terms

regression analysis