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4 Bias in Psychological Assessment

An Empirical Review and Recommendations

Assessment Psychology


  1. Cecil R. Reynolds PhD1,
  2. Lisa A. Suzuki PhD2

Published Online: 26 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118133880.hop210004

Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition

Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition

How to Cite

Reynolds, C. R. and Suzuki, L. A. 2012. Bias in Psychological Assessment. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition. 10:I:4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Texas A& M University, Department of Educational Psychology, College Station, Texas, USA

  2. 2

    New York University, Department of Applied Psychology, New York, New York, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 SEP 2012


Much writing and research on test bias reflects a lack of understanding of important issues surrounding the subject and even inadequate and ill-defined conceptions of test bias itself.

This chapter explains ability test bias, particularly cultural bias, distinguishing it from concepts and issues with which it is often conflated and examining the widespread assumption that a mean difference constitutes bias. The topics addressed include possible origins, sources, and effects of test bias. After a review of relevant research and its results, the chapter concludes with an examination of issues identified in the literature and recommendations for researchers and clinicians.


  • assessment bias;
  • bias;
  • cultural bias;
  • test bias