5 Testing and Assessment in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Assessment Psychology


  1. Kurt F. Geisinger PhD,
  2. Carina McCormick MA

Published Online: 26 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118133880.hop210005

Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition

Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition

How to Cite

Geisinger, K. F. and McCormick, C. 2012. Testing and Assessment in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition. 10:I:5.

Author Information

  1. The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Buros Center for Testing and Department of Educational Psychology, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 SEP 2012


This chapter presents measurement issues of concern related to the use of assessments in cross-cultural psychology. These topics include an overview of some of the measurement issues, validity concerns, the process of adapting measures from one culture to another, and building measures from the start so that they can be used in several cultures. Distinctions are made between cross-cultural and multicultural; between emic and etic; and between culture-free, culture-fair, and what might be called culture-bound measures. The roles of language, culture, and acculturation as influences on test results are also discussed. Finally, the Guidelines for Test Adaptation of the International Test Commission are presented.


  • acculturation;
  • cross-cultural measurement;
  • culture-fair;
  • culture-free;
  • validity