21 Evaluation of Malingering and Related Response Styles

Forensic Psychology


  1. Richard Rogers PhD, ABPP1,
  2. Scott D. Bender PhD, ABPP2

Published Online: 26 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118133880.hop211021

Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition

Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition

How to Cite

Rogers, R. and Bender, S. D. 2012. Evaluation of Malingering and Related Response Styles. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition. 11:IV:21.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of North Texas, Department of Psychology, Denton, Texas, USA

  2. 2

    University of Virginia School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 SEP 2012


This chapter provides an updated conceptual framework for understanding malingering and feigning. It contextualizes issues of malingering and identifies common yet harmful misassumptions, including the laser-accuracy myth of cut scores. Research designs for feigning are reviewed, including two that are deficient (differential prevalence and partial-criterion). As a key component of the chapter, detection strategies are summarized for two important and distinct domains: feigned mental disorders and feigned cognitive impairment. For feigned mental disorders, detection strategies include unlikely (e.g., rare symptoms) and amplified (e.g., symptom severity) categories. Featured measures include the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF, the PAI, and the SIRS/SIRS-2. For feigned cognitive impairment, strategies are organized into two categories: unlikely presentations (e.g., performance curve and magnitude of error) and excessive impairment (e.g., floor effect). Featured measures include the TOMM, VIP, and specialized scales of the MMPI-2.


  • malingering;
  • defensiveness;
  • feigned mental disorders;
  • feigned cognitive impairment;
  • response styles