24 Organizational Culture and Climate
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
IV. THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
Published Online: 26 SEP 2012
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition
How to Cite
Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J. and Muhammad, R. S. 2012. Organizational Culture and Climate. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition. 12:IV:24.
- Published Online: 26 SEP 2012
Our focus is on organizational culture and climate and the role these constructs play in understanding individual as well as collective attitudes, behavior, and performance. We begin with the assumption that both constructs rest upon the notion of shared meanings or a shared understanding of aspects of the organizational context. Climate is defined as a perceptually based description of what the organization is like in terms of practices, policies, procedures and routines while culture helps define the underlying reasons and mechanisms for why these things occur in an organization based on fundamental ideologies, assumptions, values, and artifacts. In the first half of the chapter, the culture and climate literatures are reviewed. The second half is framed around a multi-level model that integrates culture and climate through the linking mechanism of organizational structure, practices, and policies. This discussion elucidates a set of mechanisms that foster the emergence of organizational culture and climate, delineates different types of strength, and highlights the impact of weak emergent processes on outcomes. We then discuss the topic of culture and climate change and conclude by reviewing directions for future research.
- organizational culture;
- organizational climate;
- levels of analysis;
- emergent processes;