Tobacco-Related Disorders

Adult Disorders

II. Specific Disorders

  1. Lion Shahab,
  2. Jennifer Fidler Research Health Psychologist

Published Online: 25 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118156391.ebcp002008

Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology

Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology

How to Cite

Shahab, L. and Fidler, J. 2012. Tobacco-Related Disorders. Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology. 2:II:8.

Author Information

  1. University College London

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 25 JUN 2012


Dependence on tobacco represents a complex and multifaceted problem. Despite a high percentage of smokers both wanting and attempting to quit smoking, success rates are low. This chapter examines evidence for the main behavioral treatments for smoking cessation. Among these approaches, face-to-face behavioral counseling appears most effective and can be applied to different populations of smokers using diverse counseling techniques. Proactive, but not reactive, telephone counseling has also been found to reliably increase smoking abstinence as do self-help materials, but to a lesser extent. Individually tailored self-help material is more effective and Internet-based interventions, in particular, are likely to become increasingly important as they may produce greater abstinence rates. While intratreatment social support is believed to aid smoking cessation, there is little systematic evaluation to sustain this claim and extratreatment social support does not appear to confer a benefit. Aversive smoking, especially rapid smoking, has been shown to be effective for smoking cessation but poor study quality limits the reliability of this finding. Last, the use of hypnotherapy and biomarker feedback in smoking cessation interventions has not been unequivocally shown to increase abstinence. Given current knowledge, evidence-based practice should incorporate both intensive behavioral treatment and adjunctive pharmacotherapy to achieve the best results for smoking cessation; however, as research in clinical psychology and other specialties is ongoing in this area and continually improving our understanding of tobacco-related disorders, new treatment options are likely to become available and be incorporated into future recommendations and guidelines.


  • smoking;
  • tobacco use;
  • nicotine;
  • addiction;
  • dependence;
  • treatment;
  • face-to-face behavioral counseling;
  • telephone counseling;
  • self-help;
  • social support;
  • aversive smoking;
  • biomarker feedback;
  • hypnotherapy