2. Particles, Forces, and Mathematical Methods

  1. Robert M. Metzger

Published Online: 19 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118195598.ch2

The Physical Chemist's Toolbox

The Physical Chemist's Toolbox

How to Cite

Metzger, R. M. (2012) Particles, Forces, and Mathematical Methods, in The Physical Chemist's Toolbox, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118195598.ch2

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 MAR 2012
  2. Published Print: 30 MAR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470889251

Online ISBN: 9781118195598



  • particles, forces, and mathematical methods;
  • fundamental forces in nature;
  • error treatment, “uncertainty” and “resolution”


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Fundamental Forces, Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms

  • Gravitation

  • Review of Mathematical Concepts

  • Mechanics, Vectors, Tensors, and Determinants

  • Hooke's Law, Stress-Strain Tensors, and Principal-Axis Transformations

  • Lagrange's Function and Hamilton's Function

  • Electromagnetism

  • Weak Forces

  • Strong Forces and Nuclear Structure: Isotopes

  • Lack of Distance-Dependent Potentials for Strong and Weak Forces

  • The Size of Fundamental Particles

  • The Physical Meaning of Quantum Numbers

  • Special Relativity

  • Elements of Optics

  • Foundations of Ellipsometry

  • Transforms

  • Contour Integration and Kramers–Kronig Relations

  • Treatment of Errors

  • Propagation of Errors

  • Statistics

  • Gaussian, Binomial, and Poisson Distributions

  • Least Squares or Linear Regression Analysis

  • General References

  • References