4. Thermodynamics

  1. Robert M. Metzger

Published Online: 19 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118195598.ch4

The Physical Chemist's Toolbox

The Physical Chemist's Toolbox

How to Cite

Metzger, R. M. (2012) Thermodynamics, in The Physical Chemist's Toolbox, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118195598.ch4

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 MAR 2012
  2. Published Print: 30 MAR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470889251

Online ISBN: 9781118195598



  • the three laws of thermodynamics;
  • ensembles of particles, Caratheodory's principle;
  • contact angle and surface tension measurements


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Review of Thermodynamics

  • Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics (Transitivity)

  • First Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation of Energy – “You Can't Win”)

  • Second Law of Thermodynamics (“You Cannot Even Break Even”)

  • Third Law of Thermodynamics

  • Useful Auxiliary Functions: Enthalpy, Helmholtz Free Energy, and Gibbs Free Energy

  • Perfect Differentials (Two-Forms)

  • Useful Measurables: Thermal Expansivity, Heat Capacity, Joule–Thomson Coefficient

  • Gibbs Phase Rule

  • Crystalline Solid

  • Amorphous Solid

  • Glass

  • Plastic Crystal

  • Magnetic Solids

  • Electret

  • Liquid

  • Liquid Crystals

  • Arrhenius Assumption

  • Perfect Gas Law, Van Der Waals and Virial Equations

  • Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution, Collision Frequency, Mean Free Path, and Gaseous Effusion

  • Two-Component Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagrams

  • Two-Component Solid–Liquid Phase Diagrams for Solid–Liquid Equilibria

  • Two-Dimensional Version of the Perfect Gas Law

  • Contact Angle and Surface Tension Measurements

  • International Standards for Time, Mass, Length, Temperature, and Brightness

  • Adiabatic and Diathermal Walls, and Fixed-Temperature Baths

  • Thermodynamic Efficiency: The Carnot, Otto, Diesel, and Rankine Cycles

  • Standard States

  • Attainment of High and Low Temperatures [7]

  • Lowering the Pressure Above Liquid Helium

  • Adiabatic Demagnetization

  • Laser Cooling

  • Zero Kelvin, the Unreacheable Goal

  • High Temperatures

  • Attainment of High and Low Pressures [8]

  • Attainment of Low Pressures

  • References