11. Jews in Christian Europe

Ashkenaz in the Middle Ages

  1. Alan T. Levenson
  1. Eva Haverkamp

Published Online: 19 MAR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118232897.ch11

The Wiley-Blackwell History of Jews and Judaism

The Wiley-Blackwell History of Jews and Judaism

How to Cite

Haverkamp, E. (2012) Jews in Christian Europe, in The Wiley-Blackwell History of Jews and Judaism (ed A. T. Levenson), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118232897.ch11

Editor Information

  1. University of Oklahoma, USA

Author Information

  1. Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 MAR 2012
  2. Published Print: 20 APR 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405196376

Online ISBN: 9781118232897



  • The Medieval World, Jews in two cultures;
  • Jews in Christian Europe, and the Ashkenaz;
  • esoteric traditions, of prayers;
  • formation of Jewish communities;
  • medieval Jewish Diaspora, autonomy and self-government;
  • the Crusader groups, with Jews, and Muslims, as enemies of Christ;
  • persecution of 1096, a watershed event;
  • Black Death, disastrous persecutions;
  • Ashkenaz changing, culturally, during expulsions


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Part I: From the Beginnings to about 1100

  • Part II: From around 1100 to 1300

  • Part III: Between the Western European Turning Phase and the Black Death

  • Part IV: Movements to the East and to the South (1350–1520)

  • References