6. Applying the Modality Principle: Present Words as Audio Narration Rather Than On-Screen Text

  1. Ruth Colvin Clark and
  2. Richard E. Mayer

Published Online: 4 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch6

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

How to Cite

Clark, R. C. and Mayer, R. E. (2011) Applying the Modality Principle: Present Words as Audio Narration Rather Than On-Screen Text, in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition, Pfeiffer, San Francisco, CA, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch6

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 1 AUG 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470874301

Online ISBN: 9781118255971

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Keywords:

  • auditory channel;
  • cognitive channels;
  • e-learning;
  • graphics;
  • modality principle;
  • on-screen text;
  • visual channel

Summary

This chapter summarizes the empirical evidence for learning gains that result from using audio rather than on-screen text to describe graphics. To moderate this guideline, the chapter also describes a number of situations in which memory limitations require the use of text rather than audio. The psychological advantage of using audio presentation is a result of the incoming information being split across two separate cognitive channels-words in the auditory channel and pictures in the visual channel-rather than concentrating both words and pictures in the visual channel. What is new in the chapter is an update to the evidence reported in the second edition of e-learning and the science of instruction, including extensions of the modality principle to classroom contexts and supporting evidence from eye-tracking studies. The chapter presents a discussion of the boundary conditions for the modality principle-that is, the situations in which it applies most strongly.

Controlled Vocabulary Terms

e-Learning