7. Applying the Redundancy Principle: Explain Visuals with Words in Audio OR Text: Not Both

  1. Ruth Colvin Clark and
  2. Richard E. Mayer

Published Online: 4 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch7

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

How to Cite

Clark, R. C. and Mayer, R. E. (2011) Applying the Redundancy Principle: Explain Visuals with Words in Audio OR Text: Not Both, in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition, Pfeiffer, San Francisco, CA, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch7

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 1 AUG 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470874301

Online ISBN: 9781118255971

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • boundary conditions;
  • concurrent graphics;
  • e-learning;
  • on-screen text;
  • redundancy principle

Summary

This chapter summarizes empirical evidence that people learn better from concurrent graphics and audio than from concurrent graphics, audio, and on-screen text. It presents research and theory that has appeared since the previous edition of this book. There are certain situations that benefit from the use of redundant on-screen text, called boundary conditions. The chapter describes those boundary conditions. It explores special situations in which adding redundant on-screen text has been shown to help learning. Overall, the theme of the chapter is that e-learning should not add redundant on-screen text when attending to the text could distract the learner from viewing important graphics that are being presented at the same time. Research is needed to determine the situations in which the redundancy principle does not hold-including the kinds of learners, materials, and presentation methods that do not create a redundancy effect.

Controlled Vocabulary Terms

e-Learning