7. Applying the Redundancy Principle: Explain Visuals with Words in Audio OR Text: Not Both

  1. Ruth Colvin Clark and
  2. Richard E. Mayer

Published Online: 4 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch7

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

How to Cite

Clark, R. C. and Mayer, R. E. (2011) Applying the Redundancy Principle: Explain Visuals with Words in Audio OR Text: Not Both, in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition, Pfeiffer, San Francisco, CA, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch7

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 1 AUG 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470874301

Online ISBN: 9781118255971

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Keywords:

  • on-screen text;
  • narrated graphics;
  • redundant on-screen text;
  • redundancy principle;
  • psychological reason

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Redundancy Principle 1: Do Not Add On-Screen Text to Narrated Graphics

  • Psychological Reasons for the Redundancy Principle

  • Evidence for Omitting Redundant On-Screen Text

  • Redundancy Principle 2: Consider Adding On-Screen Text to Narration in Special Situations

  • Psychological Reasons for Exceptions to the Redundancy Principle

  • Evidence for Including Redundant On-Screen Text

  • What We Don't Know About Redundancy