9. Applying the Personalization Principle: Use Conversational Style and Virtual Coaches

  1. Ruth Colvin Clark and
  2. Richard E. Mayer

Published Online: 4 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch9

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition

How to Cite

Clark, R. C. and Mayer, R. E. (2011) Applying the Personalization Principle: Use Conversational Style and Virtual Coaches, in e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition, Pfeiffer, San Francisco, CA, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118255971.ch9

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 1 AUG 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470874301

Online ISBN: 9781118255971

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Keywords:

  • conversational style;
  • e-learning;
  • pedagogical agents;
  • personalization principle;
  • video transcripts

Summary

This chapter summarizes the empirical evidence that supports using a conversational style of writing and a friendly human voice. It explores preliminary evidence for how to use on-screen pedagogical agents and for how to make the author more visible by using self-revealing comments and video transcripts. The personalization principle is particularly important for the design of pedagogical agents—on-screen characters who help guide the learning processes during an instructional episode. While research on agents is somewhat new, the chapter presents evidence—including new evidence since the previous edition—for the learning gains achieved in the presence of an agent as well as for the most effective ways to design and use agents. The chapter discusses some important questions about agents in e-learning courses and how the preliminary research answers them.

Controlled Vocabulary Terms

learning; personalization