20. A View from the Past to the Future

  1. John A. Wiens2,3,
  2. Gregory D. Hayward4,5,
  3. Hugh D. Safford6,7 and
  4. Catherine M. Giffen8
  1. Keith J. Kirby

Published Online: 8 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118329726.ch20

Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management

Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management

How to Cite

Kirby, K. J. (2012) A View from the Past to the Future, in Historical Environmental Variation in Conservation and Natural Resource Management (eds J. A. Wiens, G. D. Hayward, H. D. Safford and C. M. Giffen), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118329726.ch20

Editor Information

  1. 2

    PRBO Conservation Science, 3820 Cypress Dr #11, Petaluma, CA 94954, USA

  2. 3

    School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 2006, Australia

  3. 4

    USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region, 3301 C Street, Anchorage, AK 99504, USA

  4. 5

    USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Lakewood, CO 80401, USA

  5. 6

    USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Vallejo, CA 94592, USA

  6. 7

    Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA

  7. 8

    USDA Forest Service, National Office Washington, DC, USA

Author Information

  1. Natural England, 3rd Floor, Touthill Close, City Road, Peterborough, PE1 1XN, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 JUL 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444337921

Online ISBN: 9781118329726



  • the past to the future, an insight into the Mediaeval era onward;
  • landscapes and how they function, and existence of certain species;
  • woodland and changes in England, Wytham Woods, three time periods;
  • the Mediaeval era onward, and changes;
  • chalk grassland, acid heathland, distinctive plant and animal communities;
  • formation of the ‘MODERN LANDSCAPE’ (600–60 YEARS BP);
  • Wytham Woods, in lowland England, pollen records of the last 10 000 years;
  • Woodland fragmentation over the millennia, Hardy's Dorset heathland break-up;
  • the Woods and open fields, individual farms for ‘improving the land’;
  • English forest history in informing conservation measures, for the Woods


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • A Landscape Transformed (C. 6000 -600 Years BP)

  • The Formation of the “Modern Landscape” (From about 600-60 Years BP)

  • A Quickening Pace of Land-Use Change (From about 60 Years BP Onward)

  • Contributions of Historical Ecology to Modern Conservation

  • Conclusions

  • References