15. Social and Psychological Factors in Language Mixing

  1. Tej K. Bhatia and
  2. William C. Ritchie
  1. William C. Ritchie and
  2. Tej K. Bhatia

Published Online: 3 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118332382.ch15

The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition

The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition

How to Cite

Ritchie, W. C. and Bhatia, T. K. (2012) Social and Psychological Factors in Language Mixing, in The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition (eds T. K. Bhatia and W. C. Ritchie), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118332382.ch15

Editor Information

  1. Syracuse University, USA

Author Information

  1. Syracuse University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 OCT 2012
  2. Published Print: 7 NOV 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444334906

Online ISBN: 9781118332382

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Keywords:

  • bilingual verbal behavior;
  • code-mixing (CM);
  • code-switching (CS);
  • language mixing;
  • language-mixing/switching (LM/S);
  • social-psychological domains

Summary

Language mixing reflects a natural and universal aspect of bilingual verbal behavior. This chapter addresses the four questions concerning language-mixing/switching (LM/S) – whether it is random or systematic, what its motivations are, what societal attitudes toward it are, and, finally, what the attitudes of bilinguals toward the phenomenon are. A distinction has often been made in the research literature between code-switching (CS) and code-mixing (CM). This chapter uses LM/S as a cover term for both code-mixing and code-switching. From the discussions presented in the chapter, it is self-evident that creativity and complexity are the two salient features of code-mixing and code-switching. The chapter focuses on four factors, which determine language choice and mixing on the part of bilinguals: (i) social roles and relationships of participants; (ii) situational factors: discourse topic and language allocation; (iii) message-intrinsic considerations; and (iv) language attitudes including social dominance and security.