21. Multilingualism, Indigenization, and Creolization

  1. Tej K. Bhatia and
  2. William C. Ritchie
  1. Jeff Siegel

Published Online: 3 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118332382.ch21

The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition

The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition

How to Cite

Siegel, J. (2012) Multilingualism, Indigenization, and Creolization, in The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition (eds T. K. Bhatia and W. C. Ritchie), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118332382.ch21

Editor Information

  1. Syracuse University, USA

Author Information

  1. University of New England, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 OCT 2012
  2. Published Print: 7 NOV 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444334906

Online ISBN: 9781118332382



  • contact-induced language change;
  • creolization;
  • indigenization;
  • multilingual contexts;
  • psycholinguistic processes;
  • second-language acquisition;
  • sociohistorical contexts;
  • sociolinguistic processes


The contact between languages in multilingual contexts can lead to language change and the formation of new varieties of language. Indigenization refers to the contact-induced linguistic changes resulting in a new dialect, while creolization refers to the emergence of a new language. This chapter looks at these closely related phenomena and their social contexts, and discusses the psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic processes that bring them about. The phenomena arising from language contact, indigenization, and creolization have a lot in common, especially with regard to processes of reduction and overgeneralization in second-language acquisition and transfer in second-language use.