30. Bilingualism in Europe*

  1. Tej K. Bhatia and
  2. William C. Ritchie
  1. Andrée Tabouret-Keller

Published Online: 3 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118332382.ch30

The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition

The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition

How to Cite

Tabouret-Keller, A. (2012) Bilingualism in Europe*, in The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition (eds T. K. Bhatia and W. C. Ritchie), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118332382.ch30

Editor Information

  1. Syracuse University, USA

Author Information

  1. University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg II, France

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 OCT 2012
  2. Published Print: 7 NOV 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444334906

Online ISBN: 9781118332382



  • bilingual communication;
  • bilingual education;
  • bilingualism;
  • immigrant language;
  • linguistic minority;
  • multilingual Europe


The consequences of migrations, the existence of regional minorities and the needs of education and communication offer a large frame in which multilingual situations develop and where languages change all the time by coming into contact, staying in contact or dying out. In order to be able to sort out the intricate picture of the multilingual Europe people are facing today, this chapter is organized under three main headings: a Continent of Sustained Migrations; a Continent of Linguistically Powerful States and Less Powerful Minorities, and Recent Trends in Education and Communication in Europe. Human migration is one of the main factors of language change and therefore of bilingualism. Several examples in Europe, past and present, presented in this chapter, illustrate this never-ending process, which results in a great variety of linguistic situations showing various profiles.