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Values (Shalom H. Schwartz) – Self-Direction

  1. Reuben M. Castagno

Published Online: 17 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118339893.wbeccp599

The Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology

The Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology

How to Cite

Castagno, R. M. 2013. Values (Shalom H. Schwartz) – Self-Direction. The Encyclopedia of Cross-Cultural Psychology. III:1326–1327.

Author Information

  1. Touro College, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 OCT 2013


Hypothesized a list of potential values that are common among all cultures. They tested the potential values in populations in Germany and Israel and found striking similarities between the two countries and their individual value systems. The study was based on the Rokeach value system which postulates that 18 terminal values may be reached by means of 18 instrumental values. Schwartz and then studied another seven more than 70 additional countries. A fourth study centered on predicting political views based on subjects’ individual value configurations.


  • Shalom H. Schwartz;
  • self and identity