4. The Baroclinic Problem

  1. Marcello Lappa

Published Online: 24 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118342411.ch4

Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes

Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes

How to Cite

Lappa, M. (2012) The Baroclinic Problem , in Rotating Thermal Flows in Natural and Industrial Processes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118342411.ch4

Author Information

  1. Naples, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 JUL 2012
  2. Published Print: 31 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781119960799

Online ISBN: 9781118342411



  • the baroclinic problem, baroclinic mechanism and mesoscale eddies;
  • baroclinic instability, in rotating, stratified fluids and temperature gradients;
  • Coriolis forces and ‘sloping convection’ or ‘baroclinic waves’;
  • baroclinic instability with Rossby number, small;
  • short wavelength instability, from ‘critical layer’ argument of Bretherton;
  • nonlinear stability theorems, for sufficient condition of stability;
  • regimes of convection, disturbances fully developed ‘baroclinic waves’;
  • Prandtl number, affecting convective-diffusive, baroclinic instabilities arising;
  • ‘baroclinic chaos’ geophysical for chaotic behaviour in the Earth's atmosphere;
  • chaos and gravity waves, baroclinic-barotropic and baroclinic instability


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Energetics of Convection and Heuristic Arguments

  • Linear Stability Analysis: The Classical Eady's Model

  • Extensions of the Eady's model

  • Fully Developed Nonlinear Waveforms

  • The Influence of the Prandtl Number

  • The Route to Chaos

  • Hybrid Baroclinic Flows

  • Elementary Application to Atmospheric Dynamics