16. Recombinant Avipoxviruses

  1. W. John W. Morrow PhD, DSc, FRCPath2,
  2. Nadeem A. Sheikh PhD3,
  3. Clint S. Schmidt PhD4 and
  4. D. Huw Davies PhD5
  1. Michael A. Skinner and
  2. Stephen M. Laidlaw

Published Online: 20 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch16

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

How to Cite

Skinner, M. A. and Laidlaw, S. M. (2012) Recombinant Avipoxviruses, in Vaccinology: Principles and Practice (eds W. J. W. Morrow, N. A. Sheikh, C. S. Schmidt and D. H. Davies), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch16

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 3

    Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA

  3. 4

    NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc., Grand Forks, ND, USA

  4. 5

    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Virology, Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185745

Online ISBN: 9781118345313



  • fowlpox;
  • canarypox;
  • recombinant;
  • vectors;
  • vaccines;
  • immunomodulators;
  • cytokines;
  • interferon


Members of the avipoxvirus genus represent a diverse group of relatively undefined poxviruses, well diverged from the better-understood mammalian poxviruses. Relying heavily on approaches developed for vaccinia virus, fowlpox virus was developed as a live recombinant vaccine vector for use in poultry. Causing disease only in birds, it is nevertheless able to infect mammalian cells, express proteins, and induce immune responses, both humoral and cellular, which may in some circumstances be protective (features shared with another member of the genus, canarypox virus). Blocked during morphogenesis (or before) in mammalian cells, they have an extremely high safety profile as live recombinant vaccine vectors for use in humans and other mammals, as demonstrated in numerous clinical trials. Relatively low potency has been addressed by using prime-boost regimes and by co-expression of host cytokines or co-stimulators. New-generation vectors may involve deletion of avipoxvirus immunomodulators to improve efficacy safely.