17. Intracellular Facultative Bacterial Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy

  1. W. John W. Morrow PhD, DSc, FRCPath2,
  2. Nadeem A. Sheikh PhD3,
  3. Clint S. Schmidt PhD4 and
  4. D. Huw Davies PhD5
  1. Patrick Guirnalda PhD,
  2. Laurence Wood PhD,
  3. Matthew Seavey PhD and
  4. Yvonne Paterson

Published Online: 20 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch17

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

How to Cite

Guirnalda, P., Wood, L., Seavey, M. and Paterson, Y. (2012) Intracellular Facultative Bacterial Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy, in Vaccinology: Principles and Practice (eds W. J. W. Morrow, N. A. Sheikh, C. S. Schmidt and D. H. Davies), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch17

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 3

    Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA

  3. 4

    NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc., Grand Forks, ND, USA

  4. 5

    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185745

Online ISBN: 9781118345313



  • Listeria monocytogenes;
  • Salmonella enterica;
  • Shigella flexneri;
  • BCG;
  • tumor immunotherapy;
  • tumor vasculature;
  • vaccines;
  • antigen processing;
  • cell-mediated immunity;
  • innate immunity


This chapter covers the use of facultative intracellular bacteria as vectors for tumor antigens and as tumor destroying agents. Here we review the use of Shigella flexneri, BCG, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes as cancer immunotherapeutics. We describe their development as vectors to carry protein tumor antigen and eukaryotic DNA plasmids to antigen-presenting cells and efforts to harness their tumor-homing properties. We also describe their use as vectors of angiogenic molecules to induce an immune response that will destroy tumor vasculature. The background knowledge necessary to understand the biology behind the development of bacteria as vaccine vectors is included, as well as a summary of the major therapies that have used this approach thus far.