2. Strategies to Stimulate Innate Immunity for Designing Effective Vaccine Adjuvants

  1. W. John W. Morrow PhD, DSc, FRCPath8,
  2. Nadeem A. Sheikh PhD9,
  3. Clint S. Schmidt PhD10 and
  4. D. Huw Davies PhD11
  1. Heather L. Wilson PhD1,2,
  2. Scott Napper PhD1,2,
  3. George K. Mutwiri DVM, PhD1,3,
  4. Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk PhD1,4,
  5. Hugh Townsend DVM, MSc1,5,
  6. Lorne A. Babiuk OC, SOM, PhD, DSc, FRSC6,
  7. Andrew A. Potter PhD, FCAHS1,7 and
  8. Volker Gerdts DVM1,7

Published Online: 20 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch2

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

How to Cite

Wilson, H. L., Napper, S., Mutwiri, G. K., Littel-van den Hurk, S. v. D., Townsend, H., Babiuk, L. A., Potter, A. A. and Gerdts, V. (2012) Strategies to Stimulate Innate Immunity for Designing Effective Vaccine Adjuvants, in Vaccinology: Principles and Practice (eds W. J. W. Morrow, N. A. Sheikh, C. S. Schmidt and D. H. Davies), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch2

Editor Information

  1. 8

    Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 9

    Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA

  3. 10

    NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc., Grand Forks, ND, USA

  4. 11

    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Vaccine & Infectious Disease Organization, Saskatoon, Canada

  2. 2

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

  3. 3

    School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

  4. 4

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

  5. 5

    Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

  6. 6

    Office of Vice President Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

  7. 7

    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185745

Online ISBN: 9781118345313



  • vaccines;
  • immune response;
  • adjuvant;
  • innate and acquired immunity


The induction of innate immunity marks an important step in the process of eliciting protective immunity to vaccines. Stimulation of innate immunity may be enhanced through the use of adjuvants, compounds that are included in vaccine formulations in order to provide an additional danger signal that subsequently directs and refines both the innate and acquired immune responses. A wide variety of agonists and their receptors, and biomolecular compounds have been identified and are currently being evaluated for their ability to act effectively and safely as vaccine adjuvants in a broad spectrum of experimental models and species. Here we review the mechanisms of innate immune induction and the link between innate and acquired immunity, as well as summarizing the various compounds that have been tested in experimental and clinical studies to date. Their ability to act independently as well as synergistically is also discussed. Finally, the known safety profiles of select adjuvants, as well as potential safety concerns related to combining adjuvants, are discussed.