25. Co-Administration of Co-Stimulatory Moieties

  1. W. John W. Morrow PhD, DSc, FRCPath3,
  2. Nadeem A. Sheikh PhD4,
  3. Clint S. Schmidt PhD5 and
  4. D. Huw Davies PhD6
  1. Carolina Arancibia-Cárcamo PhD1 and
  2. Yvette Latchman PhD2

Published Online: 20 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch25

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

How to Cite

Arancibia-Cárcamo, C. and Latchman, Y. (2012) Co-Administration of Co-Stimulatory Moieties, in Vaccinology: Principles and Practice (eds W. J. W. Morrow, N. A. Sheikh, C. S. Schmidt and D. H. Davies), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch25

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 4

    Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA

  3. 5

    NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc., Grand Forks, ND, USA

  4. 6

    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    The Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185745

Online ISBN: 9781118345313



  • T cells;
  • co-stimulation;
  • CD28;
  • CTLA4;
  • PD1;
  • BTLA;
  • vaccine;
  • tumor;
  • viruses;
  • autoimmunity


The use of anti-CTLA4 antibodies and CTLA4Ig clinically has revealed novel therapeutic reagents that might be important in vaccine development. The discovery of new members of the CD28 superfamily such as PD1 and BTLA has broadened our understanding of T-cell activation. Deciphering the uniqueness and overlapping functions of these pathways is essential for uncovering further co-stimulatory moieties for clinical use. In this chapter we will discuss advances in the understanding of co-stimulation through the CD28 superfamily and the potential for the use of agonist/blocking agents as monotherapies or combination therapies in vaccines against cancer, persistent viruses, and autoimmune diseases.