26. Toll Receptors in Relation to Adjuvant Effects

  1. W. John W. Morrow PhD, DSc, FRCPath2,
  2. Nadeem A. Sheikh PhD3,
  3. Clint S. Schmidt PhD4 and
  4. D. Huw Davies PhD5
  1. Dipshikha Chakravortty PhD,
  2. Amit Lahiri and
  3. Priyanka Das

Published Online: 20 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch26

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

How to Cite

Chakravortty, D., Lahiri, A. and Das, P. (2012) Toll Receptors in Relation to Adjuvant Effects, in Vaccinology: Principles and Practice (eds W. J. W. Morrow, N. A. Sheikh, C. S. Schmidt and D. H. Davies), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch26

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 3

    Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA

  3. 4

    NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc., Grand Forks, ND, USA

  4. 5

    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Biosafety Laboratories, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185745

Online ISBN: 9781118345313



  • Toll-like receptors;
  • ligands;
  • cytokine;
  • antigen presentation;
  • immune response;
  • memory response


Toll-like receptors are present in the host cell, which recognizes specific patterns in the invading pathogens and the consequent downstream signaling leads to the generation of an enhanced immune response. The foreign moieties recognized by Toll receptors can thus easily be used as an adjuvant with any vaccine. Hence, the Toll agonists have long been used to increase the efficacy of various clinical and experimental vaccines. Recent developments in the understanding of Toll pathways indicate that better use of these agonists could be made. Herein we focus on the molecular mechanism of Toll receptors in relation to adjuvant effect.