8. Utility of Nonhuman Primate Models for Vaccines

  1. W. John W. Morrow PhD, DSc, FRCPath3,
  2. Nadeem A. Sheikh PhD4,
  3. Clint S. Schmidt PhD5 and
  4. D. Huw Davies PhD6
  1. Preston A. Marx Jr PhD1 and
  2. Alexander F. Voevodin MD, PhD, DSc, FRCPath2

Published Online: 20 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch8

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

Vaccinology: Principles and Practice

How to Cite

Marx, P. A. and Voevodin, A. F. (2012) Utility of Nonhuman Primate Models for Vaccines, in Vaccinology: Principles and Practice (eds W. J. W. Morrow, N. A. Sheikh, C. S. Schmidt and D. H. Davies), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118345313.ch8

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 4

    Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA

  3. 5

    NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc., Grand Forks, ND, USA

  4. 6

    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University, Covington, LA, USA

  2. 2

    Vir&Gen, Toronto, ON, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185745

Online ISBN: 9781118345313

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Keywords:

  • nonhuman primate;
  • AIDS;
  • vaccine;
  • monkey;
  • chimpanzee

Summary

The HIV pandemic spawned spectacular growth in nonhuman primate models of AIDS, with particular emphasis on vaccine research. Discovery of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques in 1985 led to thousands of publications on AIDS models. SIVs such as the SIVmac and SIVsm/H9/H4/E660 groups are most commonly used in vaccine studies. They are derived from sooty mangabeys (SMs), a West African monkey from which HIV-2 arose. SIVmac/SIVsm induces AIDS in macaque monkeys (Macaca spp.). SIV-HIV hybrid viruses (SHIV) containing HIV-1 and SIV genes were developed to test HIV-1 antigens in vaccine studies in macaques. Chimpanzees are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but their limited availability and the lack of disease in most infected chimpanzees prevents their common use. AIDS vaccine research began with simple killed virus vaccines and progressed to complex vector systems. This chapter covers AIDS vaccines, but principles described will apply to vaccines against other diseases.