33. Virus-Associated Vasculitides

  1. Gary S. Hoffman MD, MS3,
  2. Cornelia M. Weyand MD, PhD4,
  3. Carol A. Langford MD, MHS3 and
  4. Jörg J. Goronzy MD, PhD4
  1. Dimitrios Vassilopoulos MD1 and
  2. Leonard H. Calabrese DO2

Published Online: 3 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118355244.ch33

Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, Second Edition

Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, Second Edition

How to Cite

Vassilopoulos, D. and Calabrese, L. H. (2012) Virus-Associated Vasculitides, in Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, Second Edition (eds G. S. Hoffman, C. M. Weyand, C. A. Langford and J. J. Goronzy), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118355244.ch33

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research, Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA

  2. 4

    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    2nd Department of Medicine, Athens University School of Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, Athens, Greece

  2. 2

    Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 MAY 2012
  2. Published Print: 8 JUN 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444338225

Online ISBN: 9781118355244



  • Virus;
  • vasculitis;
  • hepatitis B virus;
  • hepatitis C virus;
  • human immunodeficiency virus;
  • parvovirus;
  • cytomegalovirus;
  • varicella zoster virus;
  • Epstein–Barr virus


Virus-associated vasculitides are the best understood forms of vasculitis. Despite viruses being responsible for only a small proportion of vasculitides, distinct clinical syndromes associated with acute or chronic viral infections have been well documented including hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated small and/or medium vessel disease, hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and varicella zoster virus (VZV) associated CNS vasculopathy. Other viruses that rarely cause small vessel vasculitis are parvovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein–Barr virus. The recognition that viruses can cause vasculitis has important clinical implications for prompt diagnosis and treatment strategies. For certain viruses, like HBV, HCV and HIV, early initiation of antiviral therapy combined with appropriate immunosuppressive therapy could be life-saving. In this chapter, a review of the most common clinical and laboratory manifestations of virus-associated vasculitides is presented as well as recent therapeutic advances.