5. T Cells and Vascular Inflammation

  1. Gary S. Hoffman MD, MS1,
  2. Cornelia M. Weyand MD, PhD2,
  3. Carol A. Langford MD, MHS1 and
  4. Jörg J. Goronzy MD, PhD2
  1. Jörg J. Goronzy MD, PhD

Published Online: 3 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118355244.ch5

Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, Second Edition

Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, Second Edition

How to Cite

Goronzy, J. J. (2012) T Cells and Vascular Inflammation, in Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels, Second Edition (eds G. S. Hoffman, C. M. Weyand, C. A. Langford and J. J. Goronzy), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118355244.ch5

Editor Information

  1. 1

    Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research, Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 3 MAY 2012
  2. Published Print: 8 JUN 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444338225

Online ISBN: 9781118355244

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Keywords:

  • T cell;
  • vasculitis;
  • T-cell differentiation;
  • regulatory T cell;
  • Th1;
  • Th2;
  • Th17

Summary

T cells are critical regulatory and effector cells in vascular inflammation. T-cell activation as well as T-cell tolerance is the end result of a complex integration of signals through the T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory molecules as well as signals from regulatory T cells. Naïve CD4 T cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into an increasing number of effector lineages such as Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and follicular helper T cells or into regulatory T cells (Treg). Lineage commitment is not irreversible and some plasticity persists in differentiated T cells, in particular Tregs can differentiate into Th17. Disease patterns in vasculitides is influenced by the effector type as well as the stage of T-cell differentiation. Accumulation of end-differentiated T-effector cells is frequently associated with vascular inflammation. Molecular characterization of the signaling events in T-cell activation, T-cell tolerance and T-cell differentiation has been instrumental in identifying targets for developing T-cell-directed therapies. Understanding how T-cell effector functions contribute to different vasculitides provides a framework to decide which and how these treatments should be explored.