1. Peng-Fei Xu1 and
  2. Wei Wang2
  1. Aiguo Song and
  2. Wei Wang

Published Online: 18 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118356654.ch1

Catalytic Cascade Reactions

Catalytic Cascade Reactions

How to Cite

Song, A. and Wang, W. (2013) AMINE-CATALYZED CASCADE REACTIONS, in Catalytic Cascade Reactions (eds P.-F. Xu and W. Wang), John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ. doi: 10.1002/9781118356654.ch1

Editor Information

  1. 1

    State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, P.R. China

  2. 2

    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 OCT 2013
  2. Published Print: 24 OCT 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118016022

Online ISBN: 9781118356654



  • cycle-specific catalysis cascades;
  • enamine-activated cascade reactions;
  • iminium-activated cascade reactions


The great success is attributed to two unique interconvertible activation modes, enamine and iminium activations. Enamine catalysis has been widely applied to the α-functionalizations of aldehydes and ketones. This chapter defines the cascade reactions initiated by enamine catalysis in the initial step as an enamine-activated mode, although an iminium mode might be involved in the following steps. In this regard, several catalytic cascade sequences, including enamine–enamine, enamine–iminium, and enamine cyclization, are discussed. The cascade reactions induced by iminium catalysis in the first step are defined as iminium-activated cascade reactions, although almost all of the iminium-initiated cascade reactions are followed by an enamine-mediated process in the subsequent step. Cycle-specific catalysis, in which cycle-specific catalysts are employed discretely in iminium and enamine steps, is established, although a single imidazolidinone catalyst enables both activation cycles.