11. Neurochemical Linkage Among Metabolic Syndrome, Alzheimer Disease, and Depression

  1. Tahira Farooqui and
  2. Akhlaq A. Farooqui
  1. Undurti N. Das

Published Online: 11 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118395318.ch11

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders

How to Cite

N. Das, U. (2013) Neurochemical Linkage Among Metabolic Syndrome, Alzheimer Disease, and Depression, in Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders (eds T. Farooqui and A. A. Farooqui), John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118395318.ch11

Author Information

  1. UND Life Sciences, Shaker Heights, OH, USA; Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, India; Bio-Science Research Centre, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 11 OCT 2013
  2. Published Print: 15 NOV 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118395271

Online ISBN: 9781118395318

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Keywords:

  • Alzheimer disease (AD);
  • brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF);
  • depression;
  • liver;
  • metabolic syndrome;
  • plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs);
  • vagus

Summary

Alzheimer disease (AD) and depression are common in subjects with metabolic syndrome, and vice versa, and are all characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation, decreased plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower plasma and brain (cerebrospinal fluid) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Infusion of PUFAs and BDNF into the hypothalamus ameliorated insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in experimental animals suggests that metabolic syndrome is a disorder of the brain. Acetylcholine is an anti-inflammatory molecule. Long-term infusions of norepinephrine and serotonin into the ventromedial hypothalamus impaired islet cell function and produced all features of metabolic syndrome in experimental animals. Thus, neurotransmitter abnormalities occur in Alzheimer disease, depression and metabolic syndrome, in which exercise is beneficial due to its anti-inflammatory nature.