7. Contribution of Phospholipid, Sphingolipids, and Cholesterol-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders

  1. Tahira Farooqui and
  2. Akhlaq A. Farooqui
  1. Akhlaq A. Farooqui and
  2. Tahira Farooqui

Published Online: 11 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118395318.ch7

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders

How to Cite

Farooqui, A. A. and Farooqui, T. (2013) Contribution of Phospholipid, Sphingolipids, and Cholesterol-Derived Lipid Mediators in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders, in Metabolic Syndrome and Neurological Disorders (eds T. Farooqui and A. A. Farooqui), John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118395318.ch7

Author Information

  1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 11 OCT 2013
  2. Published Print: 15 NOV 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118395271

Online ISBN: 9781118395318

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • arachidonic acid;
  • cholesterol-derived lipid mediators;
  • eicosanoids;
  • fatty acids;
  • lipid mediators;
  • metabolic syndrome (MetS);
  • neurological disorders;
  • phospholipids;
  • sphingolipids

Summary

Lipid mediators are important endogenous regulators derived from enzymic degradation of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol by phospholipases, sphingomyelinases, and cytochrome P450 hydroxylases, respectively. Arachidonic acid-derived-lipid mediators are called as eicosanoids. They include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes. These mediators produce proinflammatory and oxidative effects. DHA-derived lipid mediators are called as docosanoids. They include resolvins, protectins, neuroprotectins, and maresins. These mediators promote anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Sphingolipid-derived lipid mediators are ceramide and saturated fatty acids. These metabolites produce insulin resistance and apoptotic cell death. Cholesterol is a precursor for Hydroxy- and oxycholesterols that induce oxidative stress and apoptosis. Elevations in lipid mediators have been reported to occur in metabolic syndrome (MetS), and neurological disorders. Increase in lipid mediators not only interferes with leptin/insulin signaling and induce glucose homeostasis in visceral tissues, but also promote chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in visceral tissues and in the brain.