8. Inhibitors to Factor VIII: Mild and Moderate Hemophilia

  1. Christine A. Lee MA, MD, DSc, FRCP, FRCPath, FRCOG2,
  2. Erik E. Berntorp MD, PhD3 and
  3. W. Keith Hoots MD4
  1. Kathelijne Peerlinck and
  2. Marc Jacquemin

Published Online: 24 APR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9781118398258.ch8

Textbook of Hemophilia, 3

Textbook of Hemophilia, 3

How to Cite

Peerlinck, K. and Jacquemin, M. (2014) Inhibitors to Factor VIII: Mild and Moderate Hemophilia, in Textbook of Hemophilia, 3 (eds C. A. Lee, E. E. Berntorp and W. K. Hoots), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118398258.ch8

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Emeritus Professor of Haemophilia, University of London, London, UK

  2. 3

    Professor of Coagulation Medicine, Lund University, Malmö Centre for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden

  3. 4

    Director, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Professor of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA

Author Information

  1. KULeuven and University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 APR 2014
  2. Published Print: 23 MAY 2014

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118398241

Online ISBN: 9781118398258



  • Factor VIII;
  • immune response;
  • antibody;
  • T cell;
  • inhibitor


Clinical problems associated with inhibitors in mild/moderate hemophilia are often considerable, since in the majority of cases adult patients are confronted with a change in phenotype from mild/moderate to severe. Although some of the risk factors for inhibitor development are similar to those in severe hemophilia, others are specific for mild/moderate hemophilia. The study of the immune response in mild/moderate hemophilia A can help to elucidate some of the mechanisms underlying inhibitor formation and disruption of tolerance. Treatment of bleeding episodes and eradication of inhibitors in mild/moderate hemophilia require specific management and special attention should be paid to the prevention of this complication.