12. Diabetes and Oral Health

  1. Kenneth M. Shaw MD, FRCP2,3 and
  2. Michael H. Cummings MD, FRCP4
  1. Philip M Preshaw BDS, PhD, FDS RCS(Edin), FDS(Rest Dent) RCS(Edin)

Published Online: 19 APR 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118405550.ch12

Diabetes: Chronic Complications, Third Edition

Diabetes: Chronic Complications, Third Edition

How to Cite

Preshaw, P. M. (2010) Diabetes and Oral Health, in Diabetes: Chronic Complications, Third Edition (eds K. M. Shaw and M. H. Cummings), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118405550.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, UK

  2. 3

    University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK

  3. 4

    Academic Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Portsmouth NHS Trust, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK

Author Information

  1. School of Dental Sciences and Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2012
  2. Published Print: 16 APR 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470656181

Online ISBN: 9781118405550



  • diabetes;
  • type 1 diabetes;
  • type 2 diabetes;
  • periodontal diseases;
  • periodontitis;
  • gingivitis;
  • xerostomia;
  • Candida spp.;
  • dental caries


Diabetes is associated with a variety of oral complications, particularly if glycaemic control is poor. Diabetes increases the risk for periodontal disease approximately threefold, and the inflammation associated with periodontal disease can have a negative impact on glycaemic control. Periodontitis is associated with increased tooth mobility and early tooth loss, which can affect food choices and nutritional intake, as well as self-confidence and other aspects of quality of life. Management of periodontitis should be an integral part of management of diabetes, particularly as evidence suggests that treating periodontal disease can reduce the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) by approximately 0.4 per cent. Other common oral problems in diabetes include xerostomia, dental caries (particularly root caries) and candidiasis. Practical advice is given for assessing oral health in patients with diabetes, together with recommendations for shared management with dental healthcare providers.