4. Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids in a Multitrophic Above- and Below-Ground Context

  1. Eric Wajnberg2 and
  2. Stefano Colazza3
  1. Roxina Soler,
  2. T. Martijn Bezemer and
  3. Jeffrey A. Harvey

Published Online: 5 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118409589.ch4

Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids

Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids

How to Cite

Soler, R., Bezemer, T. M. and Harvey, J. A. (2013) Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids in a Multitrophic Above- and Below-Ground Context, in Chemical Ecology of Insect Parasitoids (eds E. Wajnberg and S. Colazza), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118409589.ch4

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 400 Route des Chappes, BP 167, 06903 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France

  2. 3

    Department of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 13, 90128 Palermo, Italy

Author Information

  1. Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 APR 2013
  2. Published Print: 3 MAY 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118409527

Online ISBN: 9781118409589



  • above-ground insect herbivores;
  • chemical ecology;
  • herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs);
  • insect parasitoids;
  • multitrophic plant–insect interactions;
  • plant-mediated effects;
  • root feeders;
  • root-feeding insects;
  • soil-borne symbionts


This chapter first describes the general effects and mediating mechanisms that root feeders and soil-borne symbionts can exert on the chemical ecology of above-ground plant–herbivore–parasitoid interactions. It then discusses how the growth, development and host selection behaviour of parasitoids can be influenced by these soil-dwelling functional groups. In most empirical studies, the effects on parasitoids appear to be mediated by changes in primary and secondary above-ground plant metabolites and in herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), all induced by soil organisms. Finally, the chapter discusses how starting from a reductionist perspective and then expanding the spatial and temporal scales up to the level of communities and ecosystems can contribute to a better understanding of the assemblage and functioning of above–below-ground interactions.