4. Small Intestinal Cancers
- Janusz Jankowski MB ChB, MSc, MD, PhD, FRCP, FACG, AGAF2,3,4 and
- Ernest Hawk MD, MPH5
Published Online: 15 NOV 2012
This edition first published 2013 © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer
How to Cite
Arber, N. and Moshkowitz, M. (2012) Small Intestinal Cancers, in Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer (eds J. Jankowski and E. Hawk), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118423318.ch4
Sir James Black Professor of Gastrointestinal Biology and Trials, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Barts and Th e London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
Consultant Gastroenterologist, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UK
James Black Senior Fellow, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Vice President and Division Head, Division of Cancer Prevention & Population Sciences, Boone Pickens Distinguished Chair for Early Prevention of Cancer, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
- Published Online: 15 NOV 2012
- Published Print: 12 JUL 2012
Print ISBN: 9780470656242
Online ISBN: 9781118423318
- CT scan;
- neuroendocrine tumors;
Small bowel tumors are extremely rare and account for only 2% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Approximately one-third of the tumors are benign and two-thirds are malignant at the time of diagnosis.
Adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy accounting for 40% of primary small bowel neoplasms. Other tumors are as follows: neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid), 20--40%; lymphomas, 14%; and sarcomas, 11--13%.
Small bowel tumors are usually asymptomatic in the early stages, but eventually patients develop symptoms due to progression of the disease. The most frequent presenting symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and intestinal obstruction.
The diagnostic strategies for detecting small tumors include conventional noninvasive imaging modalities (small bowel barium series, enteroclysis, CT scan, and MRI), as well as endoscopic modalities (push enteroscopy, double-balloon enteroscopy, and video-capsule endoscopy). The later newer techniques had improved the diagnostic accuracy of detecting small bowel tumors.