7. Primary Hepatic Cancer

  1. Janusz Jankowski MB ChB, MSc, MD, PhD, FRCP, FACG, AGAF4,5,6 and
  2. Ernest Hawk MD, MPH7
  1. Anan H. Said1,
  2. Kirti Shetty2,
  3. Ying Li3,
  4. Boris Blechacz3,
  5. Ernest Hawk3 and
  6. Lopa Mishra3

Published Online: 15 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118423318.ch7

Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer

Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer

How to Cite

Said, A. H., Shetty, K., Li, Y., Blechacz, B., Hawk, E. and Mishra, L. (2012) Primary Hepatic Cancer, in Handbook of Gastrointestinal Cancer (eds J. Jankowski and E. Hawk), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118423318.ch7

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Sir James Black Professor of Gastrointestinal Biology and Trials, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Barts and Th e London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK

  2. 5

    Consultant Gastroenterologist, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UK

  3. 6

    James Black Senior Fellow, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

  4. 7

    Vice President and Division Head, Division of Cancer Prevention & Population Sciences, Boone Pickens Distinguished Chair for Early Prevention of Cancer, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA

  2. 2

    MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA

  3. 3

    The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 NOV 2012
  2. Published Print: 12 JUL 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470656242

Online ISBN: 9781118423318



  • Hepatocellular carcinoma;
  • viral hepatitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • molecular therapy;
  • biomarkers;
  • BCLC staging classification;
  • liver transplantation


Primary hepatic cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. It occurs commonly in the setting of cirrhosis and chronic liver disease, particularly viral hepatitis. Radiological studies are the primary modality utilized in the diagnosis of HCC, and serum markers as well as histology have additional roles. HCC is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, and the median survival time after diagnosis ranges between 6 and 20 months. However, if diagnosed at an early stage, patients suffering from HCC can receive effective curative options including surgical resection, tumor ablation, or liver transplantation. New insights into molecular pathways and targeted therapies carry significant promise for patients with HCC.